If you can’t see the image, these are the steps you should follow to commit a common FAIL in statistics: Look at data. make a hypothesis based upon what you’ve observed. Run standard statistical tests as if you have chosen your hypothesis independent of the data. Publish your paper without mention of step #2 (i.e.,… [Read More]

## “Gender Differences in Strength” vs Statistics – A Case Study in the Problem of Small Sample Size

The old myth that women are less strong than men is based on something that seems intuitively obvious — in the same way that humans believed that it was obvious that the earth is flat. Most women you know ARE less strong than the men you know! Unfortunately, that isn’t evidence for the conclusion. It’s… [Read More]

## 7 Key Terms in Statistics (To Keep You Safe at Night)

From the paper I reviewed yesterday by Button, Ioannidis, et al. called “Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience.” All direct quotes. Original paper HERE. Effect size An effect size is a standardized measure that quantifies the size of the difference between two groups or the strength of an association between… [Read More]

## Statistical Power vs Neuroscience: The Specter of Small Sample Size Strikes Again (Not All Bad News)

“It has been claimed and demonstrated that many (and possibly most) of the conclusions drawn from biomedical research are probably false.” Today’s paper: Button, Ioannidis, et al. (2013). Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. NOTE: a low statistical power means that “the chance of discovering effects that are genuinely true… [Read More]

## Bayesian Falsification – Andrew Gelman Paper

This Article by Andrew Gelman is one of the very few I’ve read that gets it right: we should be combining Falsification with Bayesian methods. I’ve called it Bayesian Falsification, he calls it Falsificationist Bayesian, but the point is the same. The Abstract: The classical or frequentist approach to statistics (in which inference is centered… [Read More]